Recreating Tower Of London Graffiti Using Photogrammetry

Last weekend I visited the Tower of London, which gave me a great opportunity to try out some of the Photogrammetry ideas I have had in the past few weeks.

graffiti new 2 8

Apart from testing 123D Catch out on large monuments and entire palace façades, I decided (thanks to the suggestion of Helene Murphy) to try modelling some of the graffiti that were made by the prisoners there. The main aim of this was to see if I could create models using photographs from dimly lit rooms, but also to see how it would react to glass, as the inscriptions were covered by panes to protect them. I also wanted to retest the Radiance Scaling tool in Meshlab, to increase the crispness of the model and see if it increased the accuracy of it.

I concentrated on 3 different pieces of graffiti that can be viewed here (embeded thanks to the suggestion of alban):


Tower Of London – Graffiti 1 (click to view in 3D)

Graffiti 1


Tower Of London – Graffiti 2 (click to view in 3D)

Tower Of London - Graffiti 2


Tower Of London – Graffiti 3 (click to view in 3D)

Tower of London - Graffiti 3

The models turned out better than expected. The glass is entirely invisible, which required some planning when taking the photos, but gave no problems in the modelling. This is particularly good as it means it should be possible to apply the same concept to artefacts found in museums behind glass.The lighting conditions themselves didn’t cause any issue that may have been expected, showing once mor the versatility of Photogrammetry.

Running the Radiance Scaling shader in Meshlab also returned really interesting results. In all cases the models become much more aesthetically pleasing, while at the same time the curves and dips are emphasised for increased crispness of the model. Although this to me seems to be a forced emphasis, that may cause a lack of accuracy, the results at the moment seem to suggest it may increase in some ways the accuracy instead, This however needs to be further explored.

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Photogrammetric Model Made With Iphone 4s

Sheep 1

I’ve experimented before with using my Iphone to create Photogrammetric models (not through the app, just taking the photos and running it through the Windows version of 123D Catch), with interesting but not perfect results. The other day however I found myself with a nice complete in situ sheep skeleton and no camera, so I took the opportunity to test the technology once again.

I took 49 photos with a very good uniform shade, going round the skeleton at first and then concentrating on tricky parts, like the head or the ribs. I then run it through 123D Catch and found that almost all of them had been stitched. I think the lighting really did the trick, as it created a really nice contrast between the bones and the ground, The photos were taken just as the sun had set, so it was still very light, but with no glare.

sheep 5 sheep 4

The skeleton itself looks extremely good compared to some of my earlier tests. It can be viewed here in rotatable 3D:
I particularly like the relatively sharp edges that I really couldn’t achieve with the other models, and by looking at the cloud point I found it to be quite accurate regardless of textures. In addition to that it’s coped excellently with the rib that pokes out of the ground and the pelvis, both of which I was absolutely sure it would have a problem with. Overall I’d say the model was nearly as good as some of the models I have done with a standard camera, and I think the potential is definitely there.
The only issue I have with using the Iphone camera is that it’s still an unreliable method. I tried replicating the results today as it had been cleaned better, but the new model is more blurry, again probably due to slightly less ideal lighting conditions. Therefore I would still use my camera as much as possible, and save the Iphone for those situations in which I find myself unprepared.

sheep 2

Roman Villa Reconstructed In 3D

Based on the plan of an actual Roman Villa, this is a fly through of the model. It’s a way to explore this living area and get a more authentic feel of what it would have been like to actually live in the Roman times.
The model was made using Google Sketchup, and the final project sees furniture and details added in to make it even more realistic. This however is the building at present, showing how archaeology can be brought to life using 3D modelling software.
A more detailed account on how this model was made can be found previously on this website.

Photogrammetry in Archaeology: Examples

I decided to make a video to show you some of the work I’ve been doing with 123D Catch and archaeological features. There’s not much to say about this one as the video is self explanatory, so just thanks for watching.

Virtual Museums: Combining 3D Modelling, Photogrammetry and Gaming Software

I wrote the post below yesterday night, but since it was written I’ve managed to create at least a part of what is described in the text, which is shown in the video above. Hence keep in mind that the rest of the post may be slightly different from what is in the video.

One of the more popular posts I’ve published seems to be the one about public engagement at Caerau, South Wales, in which I created an online gallery with the clay “Celtic” heads school children made. The main concept that I was analysing in the text was the idea that we could create digital galleries in which to display artefacts,

When I wrote the word gallery I imagined the computer definition of gallery, as in a collection of images (or in this case models) within a single folder. However I have since found this:

This is an example of what the website offers, an opportunity for artists the create a virtual space in which to display their work. It allows users to go “walk” through the gallery and view the 2d artwork as if it were an actual exhibition. Although the navigation may require a little improvement, it is a brilliant idea to make art more accessible to people.

Virtual Museum

This idea however could easily be adapted for archaeology, using Photogrammetry, Making models of a selection of artefacts using 123D Catch, we can then place them within a virtual space created with our 3D software of choice, in order to then animate it using gaming software such as Unity 3D which would allow user interaction. A large scale project could even allow the objects to be clicked in order to display additional information, or create audio to go with each artefact. Video clips could also be incorporated within the virtual space.

Virtual Museum 2

On an even larger scale this could mean we can create online museums available to all and with specific goals in mind. As we are talking of digital copies of objects, it would be possible to group in a single virtual space a number of significant objects without having to physically remove them from their original location.

The only problem that we may encounter with this idea is file size, as each photogrammetric model is relatively small and manageable, yet if we want a decent sized virtual museum we are going to need a large portion of data. Still, even if the technology at present is not quite capable of dealing with the bulk, the rate at which it is improving will allow such ideas to be doable in the near future.

Virtual Museum 3

Glastonbury Ware Pot – Ham Hill

This is one of the first attempts I made with Photogrammetry, and probably one of the ones I am most happy with. It is a beautiful pot found during the 2011 excavation, and that was glued together to show how it would have been prior to destruction. I made the model using around 60 images with 123D Catch, and good natural lighting that brought out the contrasts well, especially with regards to the decoration.
The thing I am extremely happy with is that I was able to create both sides, something which I was struggling to do before, and which was probably helped with the large number of images.
The animation itself was made using the tool in 123D Catch, which is ideal to display the model, although it is hard to create a non-wavy video, as this one shows. Still, in absence of suitable programs, or updated browsers for Sketchfab, it is an ideal tool, as it can be uploaded to youtube and shared with anyone interested.
As an addition though the model can also be viewed at the following link:


Reconstruction of St. Mary’s Church – Caerau

Here is my first video animation of Saint Mary’s church in Caerau, Cardiff. I made the model a few months ago of this beautiful church, which unfortunately is only partially standing today. It is based on a plan of the cemetery and a number of photographs I found from when it was still complete.
Sketchup itself is an easy to use software and is perfect for reconstructing archaeological sites, especially if all that is needed is a way to show the plans in 3 dimensions. By tracing over the original drawings and pushing/pulling the surfaces you can create models of large-scale excavations in little time. It also allows to build on those plans and recreate what the site would have looked like, in order to better convey the archaeology to the general public. Some research is often needed and a little guesswork sometimes is essential, but with some knowledge of the site great models can be achieved.
This model in particular is also the first time I have worked on rendering the surfaces to make them more realistic. First of all the textures are more in detail than the standard ones, but also I have been using the Round Corners plugin by Fredo, which means there are less jiggered edges. This gives an overall more appealing feel. Finally I changed the lighting to in order to create better shadows. There is still more that can be done, but that will follow.
Finally, the animation was done by exporting the model using V-Ray, and then making them into a video using Adobe Premiere. A full guide on how to do it can be found here: (although here they use Adobe After Effects).